- The Vietnam National Museum of Nature has the function of studying the museum, preserving, collecting, identifying and displaying geological, biological and anthropological specimens, documents on natural resources at home and abroad.
- To organize the collection and management of Vietnam National Specimen Collection on nature for scientific research and education.
- To organize display, exhibition, and activities to fully and comprehensively introduce the natural values of Vietnam and the world.
- To study the scientific basis, propose and implement the natural resource conservation methods; Organizing the implementation of tasks, projects on scientific research in nature, plans on protection, conservation, use and sustainable development of natural resources, rescue of plants and animals.
- To study designing, building scenarios and exhibition plans, classifying, classifying and examining biological and geological samples (rocks, minerals, minerals, paleontology) , anthropology, samples of natural origin by modern scientific and technological methods.
- To research, build, maintain, develop and preserve the genetic information of all living and extinct organisms of all kinds; Build, maintain and develop a DNA database of all living organisms.
- To organize technical and professional consultancy activities, trial production and scientific and provide technical services for museums in Vietnam's nature museum system and other agencies upon request in the fields of the museum's techniques (specimen processing, scenario design and exhibition plans, building exhibition room and collections specimens, rescue of plant and animal).
- To participate in training in the field of scientific research and museum professional skills in accordance with current regulations, to provide professional guidance and support for museums in Vietnam's nature museums system.
- International cooperation in the field of natural research, the collection of national specimens, the processing, preservation and examination of specimens and the rescue of plant and animal species in accordance with the State regulations and of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST).
- To organize activities of communication, dissemination of knowledge, to raise awareness of nature and environment protection to the community.
- To organize the mobilization, receipt and use of aid resources from organizations and individuals for study, rescue, conservation and development of forest organisms according to the regulations of the State and VAST.
- Management of organization, institution; To manage staff, cadres and employees of the unit according to the regulations of the State and VAST.
- Management of the finance and property of the unit in accordance with the regulations of the State and VAST.
- Perform other works assigned by President of VAST.
- After 10 years development, Vietnam National Museum of Nature received the Labour Medal given by President of Socialist Republic of Vietnam for notable achievements in science research.
- The project of building the Vietnam National Museum of Nature in Quoc Oai town, Quoc Oai district, Hanoi with an area of about 32 hectares is under the stage of investment preparation.
- The project of Center for Conservation and rescue of animal and plant Natural in Phong Dien District, Thua Thien Hue is under construction phase and expected to be completed in 2020.
- Specimenns collection: Over fifty thousands specimens has been collected.
- Scientific paper: 91 articles have been published in scientific journals, including 51 articles in international magazine (in 2016).
- Training: 04 staff members taking the PhD course abroad.
- International cooperation: Signed 04 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to cooperate with foreign partners adding to the total of 55(MOU), 20 international delegations came and worked at the Museum and organized 18 delegations go abroad for scientific exchanges (9/2017).